• A Study on Translation of English Names 不要轻易放弃。学习成长的路上,我们长路漫漫,只因学无止境。


    姓名是人类社会中最普遍存在的言语征象。跟着世界各国经济﹑文化交流愈来愈亲密,无关姓名的翻译问题愈来愈遭到注重。本文概括先容了英语姓名翻译常用的四种方式,包孕英译法、英译加注法、释义法、约定俗成法。

    关键词英语姓名,翻译方式

    Introduction

    Generally speaking, translation of English names should follow three rules follow the pronunciation of owners, use the standard pronunciation of the target language and adopt established popular translated names. There are four main methods of translating English names 万博世界杯官网,万博娱乐网址注册,万博娱乐城官方网站 as described below.

    1Transliteration

    The commonly used surnames and their translations are Taylor(泰勒), Johnson(约翰逊),etc. And the usual personal names include David(大卫), Laura(劳拉),etc.

    Translators should try to understand the cultural characteristics of the source language and the author’s writing purpose(孙丽, 2009). Such as “Shylock”夏洛克.But in the translation we should also pay attention to the following points

    If there are such letters in the source language, these English letters can be directly used in translation.

    C.S.Butler(C·S·布特勒)

    In fact, the translation of English names can not be too long or too short. Too long ones are not easy to be used, and too short ones are noncustomary.

    John (“约翰”,not“强”)

    If foreigners have already taken Chinese names, their Chinese names should be directly used in translation.

    Joseph 万博世界杯官网,万博娱乐网址注册,万博娱乐城官方网站 Needham(“李约瑟”,not“约瑟夫?尼达姆”)

    Whiling translating, we should use specified words. And we also need to avoid the improper words.

    Sharp(“夏普”,not“吓普”)

    The English names also have sexual distinction, so the words should be chosen carefully when translating.

    Hilary(“西拉里”—man, “希拉里”—woman)

    2 Annotated Transliteration

    Owing to profound historical and cultural backgrounds, different names have different characteristics. We should respect the source language culture and promote cultural exchange. Meanwhile, the translation has to reflect characteristics of the target language(杨小凤, 2008).

    Many English works have closely attached to the characters described in classic literary works like Bible, Aesop’s Fables, etc. If the names of gods which come from the above works need to be translated, we can use the method of transliteration. But in 万博世界杯官网,万博娱乐网址注册,万博娱乐城官方网站 this way, abundant cultural connotations of the source texts cannot be reflected. And the readers of the target text may not be able to understand the original meaning completely. In such case, annotated transliteration is a good choice for the translators. This so-called annotated transliteration means to support explanatory annotation closely following the transliteration. For example,Sometimes, English names have no such evident features. Exceptions are as follows

    (1) It is true that the enemy won the battle, but theirs is but a Pyrrhic victory.

    敌人确实博得了战斗,但他们的成功只是皮洛士的成功,得不偿失。(Pyrrhus is the ancient Greek King of Epirus, and he once leaded his troop to fight with Rome in Italy. Though he defeated the Roman army, he paid a heavy price. Thus, the word “Pyrrhic victory” became a metaphor for taking heavy price.)

    (2) You look like AL-Capone in that suit.

    你穿上那套衣服,看上去就像混混阿尔?卡彭了。(AL-Capone, a notorious criminal, is a leader of a criminal group in Chicago.)

    3 Paraphrase

    The English names of some people who were real historical characters or persons in Bible, Greek and Roman mythology or literary works are familiar to common people. The value of these names exceeds their literal meaning, and these names stand for people of certain type or their special behavior. So we could use this type of people or behavior instead of the specific names(杨小凤, 2008). For example James Bond is a brave and resourceful spy in Ian Fleming’s novel, and his code is 007. Epicurus, a Grecian philosopher, who aimed at the pursuing of happiness, has become the substitute of gastronomy. Shylock is a role in Shakespeare’s drama, who sought a fortune by practicing usury. Jay Gould, an American speculator of railway and financier, is quite rich.

    4 Law of Convention

    Law of convention in the translation of names means the words used in Chinese can not be changed randomly, so as the sequencing of the component and the punctuation in translation(孙丽, 2009). Even some wrong translation conforming to people’s habit cannot be changed either. Such as frequently used name “Charles”, which translated into “查尔斯”. But as a king’s name, it is generally translated into “查理”. Obama, the American president, is always translated into “奥巴马”, but it is better to be translated as “欧巴马”. Some English names are translated according to the sequencing of Chinese name. Such as Bernard Shaw as “肖伯纳”. In addition, it is better Johnson as a person’s name will be translated into “约翰逊”, but as a dairy brand “强生” will be more acceptable. It is unnecessary to correct it. There are so many other examples such as Charles de Gaulle, Johan Wolfgang Von Goethe, etc.

    Conclusion

    In fact, to have a good translation of English names has much to do with the translators themselves. First and foremost, translators should be a master. That is, they should have the ability to accept various cultures and be familiar with all the subjects, such as folklore, culture, psychology, aesthetics, etc.

    Bibliography

    (1)Friedman, Fabius. What’s in a Name? New York Scholastic Book Services, 1975.

    (2)孙丽,英语人名的翻译原则与细节,《考试周刊》第23期,2009218.

    (3)新华通讯社译名材料组.英语姓名译名手册(第二次修订本).北京商务印书馆,1989.

    (4)叶 玲、唐述宗,汉英姓名的异同与翻译,《信阳农业高等专科学校学报》第2期,200769-72.

    (5)杨晓凤,浅析英汉语人名的翻译方式,《科技信息》第7期,2008248.

    简介姓名庄舒源,(1988-),性别女,江苏省盐城市(籍贯),(职称),硕士(学历),研讨方向本国言语学及应用言语学。




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